5 de febrero de 2008

Criminology: Causative factors of the crimes

Criminología: Factores causantes de los delitos

(See the Spanish version of this article - Ver la versión de este articulo en español)


Why are crimes committed?

The criminal theories try to explain the reasons or factors that produce the delinquency.

The persons The persons who commit crimes do it under the influence of diverse factors, many of them are endogenous (indivual, biological, genetic, etc) and other are exogenous (social, environmental, cultural, etc)

The factors are the favorable environment in which the subject meets immersed across the time, the place and the circumstances until at any one time one o more of them, under the decision of the will and individual freedom, they produce the step to the criminal act.

The factors can interact among them and to affect certain persons and not to others or to have effect negative only in certain situations or occasions.

Some of them can act even of ambivalent form provoking crimes or preventing them.

To more accumulated factors, major criminal predisposition.


PRINCIPAL CRIMINAL FACTORS

Instincts. - Atavistic-instinctive predisposition towards the violent aggression, heredity of our predecessors hominids and reptiles.

Psychopatys.- Disorders of the personality that generate varied types of psychopaths (intelligent, fanatical, cruel, violent, explosive, cruel, vindictive, exploitative, manipulative, etc)
Among them are the most dangerous criminals.

Against-Social Psychopatys.- Generally they are joined to the abuse of alcohol and drugs; they cause criminal serious and violent aggressions

Personalities with hostile feelings.- Sometimes also psychopaths; they show aggressiveness, hatred, revenge, cruelty, envy, rancor, intolerance, resentment, recklessness, etc

Mental illnesses.- Schizophrenia, psychosis, maniacal-depressive madness, encephalitis, meningitis, epilepsy, paranoia, neurosis, phobias, cerebral injuries, oligrofrenias, dementia for alcohol or drugs, etc (8-10 % of the population suffers mental disorders)

Superiority or inferiority complexes.-

Lack of moral values and altruistic feelings.-

Genetic alterations.- Abnormalities of chromosome XYY.

Hormonal disorders of the endocrine dysfunctions.- (hyperthyroidism, high level of testosterone, unloads of adrenaline, etc.)

Influence Catamenial in women.- (Menstrual monomania)

Constitution physical-Typology.- The athletics types tend to be more aggressive, more violent criminal and passional.

Age.- More crimes are committed between 17 and 40 years.

Sex.- The men (70-80%) commit more crimes that the women (20-30%); also the "modus operandi" and the motivations often differ by gender.

Impulses and sexual perversions.- Sadism, paedophilia, disappointments love, jealousy, etc

Negative Influence of family in infancy and childhood; non-delivery of social and moral values; parents criminals, mentally unbalanced, alcoholics or drug addicts; maltreatment and sexual abuse in childhood; abandonment of the father or mother; illegitimacy of children, orphans, extramarital offspring, internment in reformatories, brothers offenders, indifference or lack of affection, family conflict, abuse women, divorce, poor education and schooling, excessive severity or mimes, poor supervision, family culture against the law and order (ethnic groups , Separatist-terrorists, religious fanatics, etc.), maturing early and forced child; lack of economic means, begging, poverty, unemployment, poor housing, etc.

Adolescence .- The crisis and psycho-physical and hormonal changes of puberty and development cause, mostly in men, insecurity, anxiety and emotional instability, attitudes of protest and rebellion, rejection and maladjustment to the socio-cultural models, complex, emotional clumsiness, irritability and behavioral abnormalities. If we join other negative factors such as alcohol and drug use, school failure or labor, low cultural level, influence of friends criminals, belonging to gangs, gangs or cults marginal or radical political groups, vagrancy, prostitution, sexual precocity, etc. , Deviant behaviour can lead to antisocial, violent assaults, vandalism, sexual offences, robbery, etc. (most crimes are street feature these juveniles)

Kleptomania .- It is a psychological disorder that makes theft irrational and irresistible objects without need and no matter their economic value; more frequent in women with depression, anxiety, anorexia, bulimia, etc..

Pyromania .- Usually affect sociópatas with incendiary impulses, delusional mentally ill, mentally retarded, alcoholics, etc.

Problem gambling .- Obsession-pathological addiction, more frequent among men; gambling debts tend to rise theft, appropriation, threats, etc.

Alcoholism .- Alcohol poisoning, drunken pathological; carry states of mental confusion, alienation and hallucinations with "delirium tremens," celotipia alcoholic, etc. causing serious violent crimes, accidents, etc.

Drugs: traffic and consumption.- Especially addiction to heroin; crises of forcing the withdrawal addict without financial means to seek money through crime or prostitution; drugs are a criminogenic factors of the first order: 70-80% of crimes, detainees and prisoners are drug-related

Illegal traffic in firearms .- Millions of small arms (pistols, rifles, grenades, etc.) are circulating around the world, empowering mafia, guerrilla movements, criminal networks, etc.; sale massive, uncontrolled and arms smuggling causing thousands of deaths, terrorist assaults, thefts, etc.

Prostitution and pimping.- In addition to transmitting diseases (AIDS, syphilis, hepatitis, etc.) are origin of kidnapping, trafficking in women and minors (trafficking mafias), rapes, murders, extortion, abortions, etc. and encourage alcoholism and substance abuse; prostitution on the contrary, the marketing of sexual impulses, avoids rape and sexual assaults

Poverty, hunger, homelessness, marginalization, poor distribution of wealth, economic crisis and shortages, high cost of living inequality of opportunity, lack of legitimate livelihoods, etc. Poverty affects 50% of the total world population. Some 1,000 million people go hungry

Unemployment, lack of work, work-trash, labor exploitation, lack of training, poor attitude towards work, strikes, labor disputes, etc. (60-80% of offenders do not have jobs or livelihoods)

Poor housing, living in slums, insufficient space, expensive rental housings, etc.

Illiteracy, ignorance, school failure, poor education: 40-50% of detainees has not completed primary education; 5-7% are illiterate

Contagion o infection-learning-differential-association, assumption or imitation of criminals models through a process of socialization, interaction with other individuals or criminal groups (family or friend groups criminals in prison, gangs, etc.) The crime is a consequence of the frequency, duration and intensity of contagion or infection-learning

Mentality and differents, opposite or contrary cultural or subcultural values to those of the dominant society, the crime may be a reaction to socio-cultural structures not accepted, some people reject the official culture failed and are integrated into a criminal subculture

Indoctrination/assumption of extremists or fanatical religious or political ideologies.- Certain radical extremist organizations, sectarian, separatist, racist, etc, exploit the naivety and lack of intellectual training of target groups, primarily children and youth, to be subjected to continual mental manipulation/dogmatic suggestion (true brainwashing) which leads them to hatred, discrimination and attacks on people of different race or ideology (the terrorist attacks, uprisings, subversive organizations, suicide rituals, wars, etc.) This type of manipulation has been a constant ideological throughout (burning/killing of infidels, heretics, wars of conquest, crusades, executions, torture, death camps, racist massacres, etc.)

Socio-economic-cultural impacts, in some countries of Asia and Africa, with certain social and family structures: inheritance customs, births, accomplishments, marriages, one-child policy, etc, preferring to men and not women, lead millions of abortions, feticide, infanticide and abandonment and sale of girls, female genital mutilation, etc.

Racism, xenophobia, discrimination against foreigners or people from other races, beliefs and customs; and the exploitation of poor or illegal
migrant workers

Organized crime.- Influence of professionalized criminal organizations, terrorists or mobsters; association between criminals or criminal groups (gangs); influence of these criminals in politics and justice, corruption and pressure on certain officials and political leaders causing their inhibition and complicity

Uncontrolled migration, the excessive permeability of open borders, mass tourism, the lack of closer monitoring of aliens permits the passage of international criminals and the penetration of all kinds of illegal trafficking (drugs, weapons, currency, works of art, etc.) and the settlement of fanatical cultures and anti-social customs

Inequality and social injustice, social maladjustment and frustration by the contrast-wealth-luxury opulence in face to poverty-misery; the incentives of the consumer society unmet generate stress, aggression and temptation to get the achievements through crime instead of working

Lust for power, dominance, greed, desire for profit/wealth and greed of the ruling oligarchies; corruption and impunity of high delinquency economic or political; oppression and injustice generate resentment and frustration that, often, leads to undertake criminal acts

Exploration and extraction of resources from certais countries in connivance with some corrupt political leaders (land, mines, oil, ect), leaving the population impoverished

Conflicts over economic interests, usurious loans, farm boundary problems, inheritances, etc.

Existence of tax havens for black money laundering and trafficking of foreign currency

Influences of the crime victim (scapegoat).- The victim is attacked if is easy target, if there is helplessness, weakness, loneliness (children, elderly people, women, destitute, mentally ill, etc.)

Incitement voluntary or involuntary of the victim (stimulus aggressive); attitude, appearance, sex, exhibitionism, etc; acting out of revenge, pretending to be a victim of a crime, causing a situation of legitimate defense to attack with legal cover, get a financial compensation faking a crime (fire or accident insurance), sometimes the victim cooperates with the offender (statutory rape, some scams, sadomasochism)

Increased number of dark figure of crimes because the victim did not report or testimony and the crime will not be known or prosecuted and the offender shall be concealed and unpunished; it happens sometimes, for fear of reprisals, threats, entrusting to the justice or police, etc (in certain events, the dark number of crimes is three times higher than the official statistics)

"Labeling approach".- Criminals is not the whole individuals who violate the law but which is labeled or stigmatized as such by the police and justice; when the labeling is unjust or misapplied criminal activity may produce a reaction against the established laws

Lack of safety measures, prevention and surveillance (patrols, alarms, surveillance cameras, controls, lack of grilles, security doors, solid fences, adequate lighting, etc.), facilities and opportunities to commit crime, difficulties of policing in the urban chaos or the overcrowded marginal areas of big cities, in passageways, areas or isolated homes, etc. (most of the crimes committed inside homes and buildings are impossible to detect; the 90% of crimes are fast commission and in hidden or lonely places), lack of effective security policies produces fear among the citizens to report or testify

Inadequat criminal and procedural laws; lack of criminal policy planning and effective prison, slow processes, lack means to investigate or prevent; lack of cocordinacion between judges/police/prisons, lack of treatment of offenders, low penalty or punishment and security measures and insufficient control for habitual offenders, dangerous or recidivists. The sentences just applied quickly and effectively reduce crime by deterring potential criminals.

Police action ineffective due to lack inadequate staff and equipment, low pay, poor discipline and supervision of command to increase efficiency and prevent corruption, lack of expertise and training, lack of attention to victims and social networking to implement prevention measures , information exchange and collaboration with citizens; failure of prevention and monitoring in areas of higher crime risk, lack of control over outputs Infomación and dangerous prisoners or recidivists, areas of drug trafficking, etc..

Malfunction failures or corruption of the judicial system; some judicial officials, lawyers, etc.. can influencecan influence on a rise of crimes if they act in favor of criminals, mafias and terrorist groups; this is particularly true in certain countries with undemocratic governments and political structures unevolved

Prison system without effective measures that make the prison amid crime enhancer, overcrowded prisons, remand prisoners with excessive and inadequate penalty, lawlessness, lack of discipline and negative reformer environment with contagious contact with other inmates; infrastructure not suitable for young offenders; exploitation of inmates by prison gangs.
Prisons should fulfill a mission of custody, to isolate and prevent convicted criminals re-offending, and also promote the rehabilitation and the psychiatric/medical treatment, (especially drug addiction detoxification); also the cultural and professional training, teaching a profession or trade so that they can make a living when them be liberated.

Wars and armed conflicts, The needs and extreme poverty increase during and after wars.
The wars, though sometimes unavoidable, are absolute disasters, with great effect for crime: murders, rapes, injuries, mutilation, imprisonment, forced labor, looting, mass destrucion, forced migration, abandoned children, diseases, etc. (70-80% of war victims are civilians)

Public disorders.- The people involved in disturbances or riots, spontaneous or induced; groups or crowd (riotous mass) lose their self-control and are subject to impulsive and emotional reactions of the mass itself and its leaders; there is an spiral of feedback that can trigger excitement, shouting, aggression and outbursts of violence, damage, looting, arson and other serious crimes; often some offenders exploit the confusion and lawlessness to commit their crimes

Political systems tyrannical, oppressives, corrupt, who violate for liberties and human rights, coercive imposition of unfair rules and dominant, the absence of a policy of freedom, justice, equality and political pluralism that hinders the normal development of social life. The leaders of these anti-democratic systems and their agents, in addition to committing crimes, have a multiplier effect criminogenic

Climate and geography.- In countries with cold climates (North) are more property crimes and the hot (South, Ecuador) crimes against persons, the heat predisposes to aggressive actions, this rate of crime usually increases during the months of summer. There are statistics showing that the crime figures descent in the days of rain or snow.

Criminal influence of large towns and cities and minor to rural areas due to factors such as urban overcrowding, excessive migrants, marginal population, disorganization, cramped space, social maladjustment, fast-paced, tension, stress, , impersonal relationships, congestion, air pollution, more opportunity to commit crime, poor or marginal neighborhoods, promiscuity, prostitution, filth, crime attraction to shopping areas and department stores; much crimes occur in road traffic between marginal areas, in commercial and in residential neighborhoods, in poorly lit streets, and in slums with bums, drunks, drug addicts, etc.
In cities of more than 200 thousand inhabitants, the crime rate is 4-5 times higher than in small towns and villages

Areas densely populated.- Exist more crimes when exist overpopulation, overcrowding, sprawl, crowding in roads and transport, uncontrolled migration, uprooting family and social, demographic explosion, marginal population; that all increase the conflict and competition, maladjustment of the emigrants , inequalities, diversity of uses and customs, class divisions, social disorganization, opportunities for crime, etc.
To more people, more crops with destruction of forests, trees; half of the tropical forests have been destroyed obtain wood for fuel, paper making, etc. Thousands of animal species disappear by reducing their habitat by human population expansion

New independent countries or political changes: Exist more crimes by cause of cultural conflict, migration, lack of tradition, destruction of cultural identities of origin, readjustment of taboos and customs, etc.

Excessive traffic and congestion of vehicles that cause pollution, accidents involving deaths and injuries, car theft, aggressions, noises, movement and traffic congestion, fatigue, stress, etc. The car is the subject and means of committing crimes, it is present at many robberies, terrorist attacks, killings, sex crimes, etc.

Great disasters, earthquakes, fires, etc., cause social disruption and confusion, increasing the chances for crime

Superstitions.- Certain practices of diviners, shamans, healers, witches, spiritualists, etc, in addition to mislead and defraud his false knowledge, can produce serious damage to health or cause death and mutilation, as ablation of cltoris, human sacrifices, destruction animal species for exploit the supposed powers of certain organs or bones (rinoceonte horns, tiger bones, etc.)

Some fashions and customs: deformation or physical scars to get a canon artificial of beauty (bandages to prevent the growth of girls' feet in ancient China; placement of large rings on the lips in certain African tribes),use of fur, ivory, jewels and the like, produce killing and smuggling of animals with species extermination, robbery of jewelry, etc.

The mass media, TV, Internet, cinema, video games, mobile phones, etc, show diferents models or value (sometimes positive and sometimes negative) in relation with crime, violence, assaults, etc. Sometimes they have an influence imitative negative as is been proved in actual crimes with "modus operandi" identical to those by certain films that occur shortly after his projection, hence it follows that there is a potential suggestive of violence on individuals predisposed to such as psychopaths, insane, minors, etc. (an child, between 1 and 15 years, get to see some 10-15 thousand deaths on the screen; and ¡attention to war games!)
However, we must also highlight the positive aspects: distribution and universal intercommunication through internet and satellite TV, knowledge, cultures and different livelihoods, protection of democratic, education in defense and prevention againts crime, notices of seeking and locating criminals, etc.


LINKS

Criminology factors - www.google.es


Índices de criminalidad por países - Google

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